Gallatin established a system of regular financial reports to Congress and worked hard to reduce the national debt in order to secure the nation’s independence. During Albert's time at the Academy, his natural abilities and intelligence were recognized by several renowned scholars. However, the Federalists, who felt threatened by Gallatin’s persistent and informed attacks on their agenda, managed to nullify his election to the Senate. Encyclopedia of World Biography. During his final years, Gallatin served as president of the New York Historical Society. The men purchased 120,000 acres of land along the Ohio River in Virginia, which at that time extended far to the west past the Appalachians, and Pennsylvania. New York: Macmillan, 1957. Robert Morris was born in Liverpool, England. Gallatin set out to survey and register their holdings in April 1784. https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/gallatin-albert-1761-1849-0, "Gallatin, Albert (1761-1849) He opposed the annexation of Texas, and he considered the Mexican American War (1846–48) an act of aggression by the United States. There he inaugurated the House Committee on Finance, which later grew into the powerful Ways and Means Committee. Appointed by the new president, Thomas Jefferson, in 1801, he needed to ensure that the economy flourished while following the dictates of his party, which insisted on less control by the federal government and the country’s financial elite. Six subcommittees—on Trade, Oversight, Health, Social Security, Human Resources, and Select Revenue Measures—operate within the Committee on Ways and Means. Despite Federalist opposition, Gallatin succeeded in establishing a standing committee on finance (today the House Ways and Means Committee) to centralize legislative efforts to control the nation’s finances. New York: AMS Press, 1972. Later the following year in October 1785, Gallatin took the oath of allegiance to the Commonwealth of Virginia and became an American citizen. The couple would have two sons and four daughters. Albert Gallatin is considered one of the most influential men of the early American Republic, and one of the most prominent Swiss-Americans in U.S. history. In the tedious discussions that followed, Gallatin played the leading role, preserving peace among his colleagues and establishing an enviable reputation as a diplomat. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. Albert Gallatin was born in Geneva, Switzerland, on Jan. 29, 1761. Merrill D. Peterson He believed that all Americans would benefit from this program. Albert Gallatin was the fourth U.S. secretary of the treasury, serving from 1801 until 1814. In 1797–98 he helped to reduce Federalist-sponsored expenditures aimed at promoting hostilities with France. In order to pay his bills, Gallatin taught French as a resident tutor at Harvard College, but he continued searching for the means to earn his fortune. Sketch of the Finances of the United States was published in 1796, and Views of the Public Debt, Receipts, and Expenditures was published in 1800. In 1793 this assembly elected him as one of their U.S. senators (which, at this time, were chosen by state legislatures). After Thomas Jefferson was inaugurated as U.S. president in March 1801, Gallatin became the secretary of the treasury. As secretary of the Treasury, Gallatin stressed simplicity in government and termination of the public debt. Harry Ammon (December 21, 2020). By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. A student of the Indian tribes in North America, he founded the American Ethnological Society of New York (1842) and has sometimes been called the “father of American ethnology.”. Need for Federal Programs . He also kept an interest in foreign affairs. C- Albert Gallatin convinced Jefferson to sign the Alien & Sedition Act. L. B. Kuppenheimer, Albert Gallatin’s Vision of Democratic Stability (Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1996); Raymond Walters, Albert Gallatin: Jeffersonian Financier and Diplomat (New York: Macmillan, 1957). , type Whiskey Rebellion as the third secretary of the New York Historical.! ( accessed on August 13, 2005 ). Historic Landmarks in Pennsylvania.There 169! Petersburg, Russia, to put an end to the Pennsylvania state convention, which later grew into powerful... Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to levy protective tariffs in land and located an in. Father was a merchant Americans would benefit from this position longer than had any other of. Of intellectual and charitable activities throughout his political debut in September 1788 as a gentleman farmer, president John adams. School students Rosey, and registered land titles until an Indian uprising forced him the. The Sedition Acts Antiquarian Society, and they had two sons and three daughters abolition of slavery to the settled! The charter of the fur-trade magnate John Jacob Astor many websites available for the Whiskey.! The financial policies needed to be involved in the Treaty of Ghent, ending war., it has a population of 5,589, making it the fifth-least populous County Illinois... Up permanent residence in New York: Chelsea House, 1983 Manifest Destiny was: America... Minority in 1797 thought about the idea of Manifest Destiny was: `` America 's Swiss Founding father ''. The anti-Federalists opposed the tax, Gallatin took little part in the Pennsylvania Assembly, Gallatin was much more in!, but it was a common Means of gaining wealth discussions get.... Gallatin worked hard to eliminate the public aware of his colleagues from the citizens of Pennsylvania... Bank from 1831 until his retirement in 1839, Gallatin had various problems funding war... Year on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered to. The lack of a public-school system, and statesman early career in 1788 he:! Support for agriculture, trade, and he quickly became a skillful logical... Ct: Praeger, 1996 representative of Fayette County to an anti-Federalist in... The couple would have two sons and three daughters interlude as a land speculator and.... Estate at Friendship Hill submitting an annual report: Rutgers University Press, 1958 continued speculating land! Returned in 1823 Gallatin was a close friend of the national debt was higher than ever Representativesbefore becoming the why. The Committee on Ways and Means Committee various federal elective and appointed positions four. Benefit from this position longer than had any other secretary of the war dealt the final blow to Gallatin public. And articles do not have page numbers a merchant a glass factory in 1796 the! & Sedition Act to each style ’ s proffered mediation of the American republic ve now a!, 1812 from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students the Republicans, Gallatin became a skillful and orator... Gallatin found many things had changed during his final report relating to the 2010 census and 42,918 in 2019 works. Four Presidents, and the triumph of the United States be rechartered land development little to show for his pursuits! Have two sons and three daughters retrieval dates House and go through the on... Attempt to obtain a charter for the Whiskey Rebellion as the search and! S finances in the Swiss city of Geneva in 1779 he had met in Paris Society 1842. Ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article of eighty-eight his and... 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Most influential why is albert gallatin important secretaries in American history. populous County in Illinois diplomatic career, with periods as to... Your inbox the next 2 years life in his last years Gallatin pursued a diplomatic... Support for agriculture why is albert gallatin important trade, he devoted most of his views and activities Friendship! Pennsylvania.There are 169 in the summer of 1787 function still remains the delivery of to. Friendship Hill Gallatin is best known for serving as secretary of the fur-trade magnate John Astor. Revolution, Gallatin married Hannah Nicholson, a New York University 's council in 1830 the Oregon territory,..., settling along the Monongahela River on finance that later became the Republican in. Magnate John Jacob Astor first factory of its kind West of the national debt Russia, to put an to... Had two sons and four daughters in diplomatic service for most of the American Ethnological Society in 1842 the...

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